Books are the best study material of ias preparation in UPSC civil service exam. Indian and world geography books are the most searched books on internet because of huge demand in the market. This article is about best books for indian and world geography books for ias exam.
we will also know how to select best books for Indian and world geography which will cover upsc prelims and mains exam. Market is full of books and it becomes very confusing if you are new in this examination.To select the right books for upsc exam is the key to success.
Indian And World Geography Books
Geography is one of the most loved subject in UPSC exam, large number of aspirants choose Geography as optional subject in ias mains exam. Indian and world geography is also covered in IAS prelims paper 01 also. The prelims question paper -01 comes with 10 to 15 question on geography itself.
In UPSC Prelims exam , you have to read Indian as well as World geography to clear it so the importance of Indian and world geography books in Prelims and mains exam is huge.
General Studies paper 01 also cover Indian and world geography syllabus and 5-7 questions are expected in this paper, so the important of Indian and world geography is much higher than we assume.
The big question is how to prepare Indian and world geography for both prelims and mains exam in less time. The indian and world geography books are the best tool for preparation.
The only thing is to select right kind of books for each subject and read it. There are also some good online websites which can help you in preparing indian and world geography subject.
Books For Indian Geography Subject-
I have made a comprehensive list of Indian and world geography books for both prelims and mains exam though all the books are not recommended to read so that you can buy each books from every segment. All the books are well read and suggested by IAS topper every year so you can select based on your choice.
This book covers world geography portion of GS paper 1.
Written by D R Khullar and published by access publication house.
World Geography By D R khullar
All the above books are useful for Indian and world geography subject for prelims as well as mains exam. You can choose any good book from them, no need to buy same book book again . UPSC exam preparation need complete knowledge of Indian and world geography topics mentioned in UPSC syllabus so above mentioned books are useful in geography preparation.
UPSC Syllabus for mathematics is explained in this article,it is one of the most chosen optional subject in upsc mains exam. Mathematics is very useful optional subject to score high if prepared well. The marks in the mathematics can not be deducted if you write proper solution. Who are good at maths can score very good marks.
UPSC Syllabus For Mathematics-Paper-01
(1) Linear Algebra:Vector spaces over R and C, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimension; Linear Transformations, rank and nullity, matrix of a linear transformation. Algebra of Matrices; Row and column reduction, Echelon form, congruence’s and similarity; Rank of a matrix; Inverse of a matrix; Solution of system of linear equations; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors,characteristic polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Symmetric,skew-symmetric, Hermitian, skew-Hermitian, orthogonal and unitary matrices and their eigenvalues.
(2) Dynamics & Statics: Rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles; constrained motion; Work And energy, conservation of energy; Kepler’s laws, orbits under central forces. Equilibrium of a system of particles; Work and potential energy, friction; common catenary; Principle of virtual work; Stability of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three dimensions.
(3) Analytic Geometry: Cartesian and polar coordinates in three dimensions, second degree equations in three variables,reduction to canonical forms, straight lines,shortest distance between two skew lines; Plane, sphere,cone, cylinder, paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.
(4) Ordinary Differential Equations: Second and higher order linear equations with constant coefficients, complementary function, particular integral and general solution. Second order linear equations with variable coefficients, Euler-Cauchy equation; Determination of complete solution when one solution is known using method of variation of parameters. Laplace and Inverse Laplace transforms and their properties; Laplace transforms of elementary functions.
Application to initial value problems for 2nd order linear equations with constant coefficients. Formulation of differential equations; Equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor;Orthogonal trajectory; Equations of first order but not of first degree, Clairaut’s equation, singular solution.
(5) Calculus: Real numbers, functions of a real variable, limits, continuity, differentiability, mean-value theorem,Taylor’s theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maxima and minima, asymptotes; Curve tracing; Functions of two or three variables: limits, continuity, partial derivatives, maxima and minima,Lagrange’s method of multipliers, Jacobian. Riemann’s definition of definite integrals; Indefinite integrals; Infinite and improper integrals;Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only); Areas, surface and volumes.
(6) Vector Analysis: Scalar and vector fields, differentiation of vector field of a scalar variable; Gradient, divergence and curl in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates; Higher order derivatives; Vector identities and vector equations. Application to geometry: Curves in space, Curvature and torsion; Serret-Frenet formulae. Gauss and Stokes’ theorems, Green’s identities.
UPSC Syllabus for Mathematics Paper-02
Mathematics syllabus for paper-02 is well elaborated in this article and all the topics are explained in details. Mathematics paper-02 has topics like Algebra, Real analysis,Complex Analysis etc. All the topics are based on the UPSC official syllabus mentioned in notification.
If you are aware of all the topics,sub-topics of syllabus , you can prepare it much better. So it is advisable to write down all the topics of the syllabus and practice them. Let’s have a look on the upsc syllabus topics for mathematics subject-
(1) Algebra: Groups, subgroups, cyclic groups, cosets, Lagrange’s Theorem, normal subgroups, quotient groups,homomorphism of groups, basic isomorphism theorems, permutation groups, Cayley’s theorem. Rings, subrings and ideals, homomorphisms of rings; Integral domains, principal ideal domains,Euclidean domains and unique factorization domains; Fields, quotient fields.
(2) Real Analysis: Real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property; Sequences, limit of sequence, Cauchy sequence, completeness of real line; Series and its convergence, absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series. Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact sets.
Riemann integral, improper integrals; Fundamental theorems of integral calculus. Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions; Partial derivatives of functions of several (two or three) variables, maxima and minima.
(3) Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equation s, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, power series representation of an analytic function, Taylor’s series; Singularities; Laurent’s series; Cauchy’s Residue theorem; Contour integration.
(4) Linear Programming: Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution; Graphical Method and simplex method of solutions; Duality. Transportation and assignment problems.
(5) Partial differential equations: Family of surfaces in three dimensions and formulation of partial differential equations; Solution of quasilinear partial differential equations of the first order, Cauchy’s method of characteristics; Linear Partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients, canonical form; Equation of a vibrating string, heat equation, Laplace equation and their solutions.
(6) Numerical Analysis and Computer programming: solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan (direct), Gauss-Seidel(iterative) methods. Newton’s (forward and backward) interpolation, Lagrange’s interpolation.Numerical methods: Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection,Regula-Falsi and Newton-Raphson methods.
In this article you will know how to clear UPSC exam (IAS, IPS ,IRS ) in your very first attempt by following right kind of Preparation Plan, Study material and other useful tips. This post is also useful for the beginners and senior aspirants who could not clear UPSC exam due to some reasons.
Clearing UPSC exam is not easy task but you can make it easy by preparing in right way with the help of right kind of study material. The Past results speaks itself that many aspirants are clearing UPSC exam in their first attempt which is a positive sign that you too can clear in your first attempt.
The only need is to follow some key tips while preparing for UPSC exam, all of these guidelines are well tested & advised by IAS Toppers so you can trust them blindly.
First of all keep in mind that anyone can clear UPSC exam with serious preparation and right strategy and we are here to guide you in right direction with time test preparation methods.
Here are 10 most recommended tips for every serious aspirants who want to become an IAS officer without wasting too many years. If you follow these tips you will either clear UPSC exam or find yourself very close to it. so let’s get started-
1-Know Civil Service Exams Pattern-
The Civil services exams are divided into two categories ( State and Union ). Each state has its own state civil services commission and select civil servants for various state services.Union public service commission conducts civil service exam for various group A&B posts every year which starts in the months of June till December.
Once you have decided to clear UPSC exam, this is the first step is to know the complete UPSC exam process and UPSC exam pattern , Question papers etc.
Having complete knowledge of the exam is very first and important step so that you can plan your preparation accordingly. As we know UPSC exam is little bit time taking than other exam , UPSC CSE exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission every year.
It starts in the month of june and ends in december in the same year. UPSC CSE exam is conducted in three stages which are known as PRELIMS, MAINS and Interview.
Prelims is the first stage where you qualify for the MAINS exam .
IAS prelims consists of two paper which details are given below.
To clear the first stage which is prelims exam you have to score above the cut-off marks in prelims paper-01 ( which is only counted for merit in prelims exam) and
qualify paper 2 (CSAT).Read here to know more about IAS exam details-UPSC Exam Details
The first stage is prelims, It has two papers which are objective in nature and you have to individually pass both the paper with minimum 33% marks. The first paper which is general studies paper marks are counted for prelims merit.
Those who score above cut-off marks in the prelims paper 1 will be qualifying for mains exam.Negative marking will be applicable for both the papers in prelims exam. 1//3 marks will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Prelims paper 1 consists subjects like history, geography,science,economy,environment,art& culture etc. Total 100 questions are asked in the first paper and each question carry 2 marks , total 200 marks.
Civil services paper 2 which is called CSAT carry 200 marks and 80 questions. All the question carry equal marks and negative marking is also applicable in prelims paper 2. This paper is made to qualify only. Its marks are not counted for prelims merit list.
Let’s have a look on the UPSC civil services exam data of the previous years which will help us to understand the real picture of the CSE examination so that we can plan accordingly.
UPSC CSE which is said to be one of the most difficult exam in India where more than 1 million aspirants apply each year and these numbers are increasing year by year.
Out of 1 million, around 5 lakh aspirants actually appear in the prelims exam and hardly 12000 to 13000 clear this stage every year.
These number are very less because the high level of competition in the prelims exam. Those who clear prelims exam are qualified for UPSC mains exam which is held after 4 month of prelims exam.
After writing 9 paper of mains exam examination, 2500-3000 aspirants are called for Interview , these number vary based on the vacancy available that particular year.
The final selection is done based on the total marks of the UPSC Mains and interview .This is how UPSC exam pattern works and select some hundred class A&B officers for All India and Central services.
UPSC Civil Services Exams Notification Dates-
UPSC release notification for civil cervices exams in the months of march-april for prelims . You have to download notification from UPSC official website. Once you read the notification and full-fill the required eligibility criteria, you can apply for the exam.
You have to apply for civil cervices exam online only. The official website for Online application is WWW.UPSCONLINE.NIC.IN.
The exam will be conducted in the various examination center’s , check out near your city which will be mentioned in the exam form. The examination hall seats are fixed so apply early to get your choice of examination center.
Once you clear prelims exam then you will be asked to fill the form for mains exam . The civil services mains exam is conducted after completion of prelims. Usually mains exams are held in the month of October (after 4 months of prelims exam). You can start mains exam preparation just after completion of prelims exam.
UPSC Exam Eligibility-
Let’s have a look on the Qualification for UPSC CSE exam in details. UPSC exam eligibility is different for different category aspirants which we will discuss later but some of the eligibility criteria are common for all.
Education-If you want to apply for UPSC CSE examination, you must have a graduation degree from any recognised university which approved by UGC & DEC etc. A degree from private university is also valid for UPSC exam qualification criteria.
Age Limit & N0. of Attempt-Minimum age limit for UPSC exam is 21 year for everyone but there is some relaxation for the higher age limit for certain category aspirants. The total number of attempts for general category are 6 but other category aspirants have some relaxation. Read more about Upper age limit & attempts-
UPSC Exam Syllabus-
Knowing UPSC syllabus is key to success in UPSC CSE exam preparation, many aspirants do not pay enough attention to this section and lose marks in the examination. If you want clear UPSC exam in one year, you must pay enough attention to UPSC syllabus.
Most of the questions in UPSC exam are asked from its syllabus itself so if you are covering whole UPSC syllabus, you will score good marks in the examination. UPSC has defined its syllabus in its notification which is released just before UPSC prelims exam.
Though UPSC ask questions from every possible area but still you can predict its questions if you have UPSC syllabus well and know the UPSC Syllabus Topics in details.To Memorise UPSC syllabus, You can download it and get a hard copy for later revision.
You can read UPSC syllabus from UPSC official website or download it from the link given below.
Set Your Goal First-
UPSC exam preparation takes a year to complete and chances are high that you will start feeling bored after some months. To avoid this situation , you can divide your whole preparation in small goal which can be for few days, weeks and months.
If you set small goals which are easily achievable, you can easily finish the complete UPSC syllabus and never get bored in UPSC exam preparation.
You can select some chapters for a week and read then , make notes etc.
You can set a goal for a month and air mark some subject to read and revise as per your interest.
You can also schedule Test series/ previous year question papers practice based on your preparation level.
Once you start achieving these small-small goals, your confidence level will rise to new high level and you will feel more comfortable and ready for exam.
This is how you can complete your complete UPSC syllabus in time and revise it well in time. So goal setting is very important in UPSC EXAM PREPARATION.
Download UPSC Syllabus (PDF)-
Many aspirants are unable to get whole UPSC syllabus at one place so keeping in mind this problem we have decided to keep complete UPSC syllabus at one place. You can read the complete upsc syllabus and also download it in PDF form for later reference.
Now we are well aware of UPSC syllabus, the next step is to find right UPSC Books which should be based on the latest upsc syllabus. UPSC exam preparation is mostly depends on the books which cover more than 70% of UPSC syllabus of prelims and mains exam.
We can not ignore the importance of books in the presence of internet because there are some subject which can be prepared better with books than computer screen.
Reading online books has some limitation and we can not afford to read for longer time on electronic screen, it can affect our eyes due to continuous emitting of low levels of UV Radiation.
So books are the best way of preparing any exam even today .There are thousands of book available in the market on single subject, and this luxury of books make it difficult for an aspirants to select right book for upsc exam.
To solve this problem, we have made a complete UPSC books list for all the papers- prelims and mains. All these books are based on the IAS topper advice and cover almost entire UPSC syllabus in details. So lets explore UPSC books for UPSC Prelims and Mains exam.
Selection Of Right Books-
We already know that books are the main source of preparation in every exam but in UPSC , the importance of right books in immense.
You can not clear UPSC exam just by reading random books so you have to be well aware of the best books for upsc exam and how to get in without wasting lot of time.We have listed complete books for UPSC exam which are based on the following parameters.
UPSC books must cover the entire UPSC syllabus notified by UPSC in its official notification and we have selected all these books to cover almost entire UPSC syllabus.
UPSC books selection should be in such a way that you have to read minimum books to cover the syllabus to save your time for revision.
No use of reading Noble types books of 1000-1200 pages where hardly 2-3 questions are expected from them in the exam. The better way to read limited books and revised them multiple times.(specially when you have paucity of time )
It is sufficient to read 2 source ( books ) for one topic than reading 5-6 books for single topic. (The aim is to save time for other subject)
All these books are read by many IAS topper ans also suggested by them in interviews and seminars. So you can trust the credibility of these books.
The best part is you need not to look-out in the market and waste lots of time, all these book are easily available in online and can be delivered to your door within 2-3 days.
Click to know the COMPLETE LIST OF UPSC BOOKS For Prelims and Mains exam and buy them online .
UPSC Prelims Books-
As we know prelims is the first stage of upsc exam process which is the gateway of UPSC mains exam. Clearing upsc prelims should be the priority for every aspirants so that he/she can write mains exam. Many aspirants are not able to clear prelims due to various reasons and selection of wrong book is one of the major factor of their failure.
Prelims exam is way different than mains exam, in prelims exam questions are factual in nature and you are required to select correct answer, negative marking is also applicable.
So most questions are factual than analytical, you have to mug-up some facts, details of information,dates etc. So the selection of books is very crucial in prelims exam.
We have selected complete books for prelims exam which covers all the subject in details. all these books are read by IAS millions of UPSC aspirants every year and some have topped the exam. These books are also suggested by IAS topper in their seminars and discussion.
our approach is to make UPSC exam preparation more enjoyable than a burden ( which is happening currently in many part of country ). Click here to see the complete UPSC exam books for English Medium and Hindi Medium aspirants.
Once you have selected upsc books you can order them online and get within a week at your doorstep with lesser amount then the market price. Click to buy online.
UPSC Mains Books-
The booklist for UPSC mains is almost similar to prelims exam but few books are added due to expansion of mains syllabus. Most books you read in prelims exam will be useful in upsc mains exam. The additional books are required to cover your optional syllabus.
UPSC mains has 9 papers where 7 papers marks are counted for merit and 2 papers are qualifying in nature. These two papers are language papers where minimum 33% marks are required to qualify mains exam.
Essay is very important paper where no one book is enough to cover entire essay syllabus but these books can be useful in writing an attractive and quality essay.
Solve Previous Year Question papers-
” Practice makes man perfect ” Same lines are also applicable in UPSC exam.Practicing the previous year question paper is very helpful in UPSC exam , if you practice question papers , you get an idea how UPSC ask question in the exam. You can check your preparation level by solving these papers.
If you solve last 10 years question papers , you solve almost 10000 questions before exam, many of question in UPSC prelims are of same pattern which you have already solved in these papers.
By solving these papers , your confidence level will rise tremendously so it will definitely benefit you in the actual exam.
Previous year question papers are easily available online , you can buy last 23 years question papers with answer in less than 200 rupee. Click Here to BUY online.
After solving these question papers , you get complete overview of the difficulty level of question asked in the UPSC exam and plan-out to prepare accordingly.
Many IAS topper suggest this strategy to score high marks in the UPSC prelims exam.
When 1 marks decides destiny in UPSC exam , you can not ignore anything useful for UPSC exam preparation and solving previous year question papers is one of them . Solving previous year question paper helps you to understand the nature of question asked in upsc exam.
Once you solve these questions, your self-confidence increase tremendously which will help you in the exam.
You can do it from home !
Preparing upsc exam from home is also possible as more and more aspirants are studying from home comfortably. Gone are the days when people have to travel long distance and attend coaching class. Now you can access anything from home from your laptop, PC and even with your smartphone.
Before the internet revolution in India, upsc aspirants did not have much choice of getting right mentor , coaching institutes, study materials so they have to approach big cities like delhi, Allahabad.
But now you can get everything online from your home, you can get any coaching class video,study material from home. You also can join offline coaching programme of coaching institutes if interested.
After having such facilities, anyone can prepare upsc exam from home with ease. No need to worry of being in remote part of the country,
if you are passionate about the service, willing to serve nation as a civil servant, no one is going to stop you.here are some key tips which can help you in preparing upsc exam from without coaching-Let’s explore them.
Find the useful websites for upsc exam which will help you in your preparation and also provide you useful information about exam , study material and much more.
Coaching institutes are not mandatory today to clear upsc exam , as many serious upsc aspirants are clearing it without joining coaching classes.
You can prepare upsc exam from any part of the country with smart preparation strategies. So need not to go BIG Cities for UPSC exam preparation. Start preparing from home and clear it.
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Online Website For UPSC Preparation-
Online website are the best source for the UPSC exam preparation with books. Now a days books are not suffice to complete upsc exam preparation, you need some online website which can provide you latest current affairs, current events national & international and upsc exam update.
There are many benefits of Online website for upsc exam preparation, some of them are listed below-
You get latest updates from online websites because they updates on daily basis.
Current affairs and news related stuff can be prepared from online websites easily, books can not be updated on daily basis.
There are good coaching and guidance available online and most of them are free of coast. This makes upsc exam preparation more smooth and accessible to last person in the country.
Mock Test are very important in UPSC exam preparation, online website are the biggest source for them. You can get very low cost Test series for prelims and mains and boost your score in exam.
Utilize Social Platform-
Most of coaching institutes have their own social media presence where they provide useful information related upsc exam. Large number of aspirants are also there provide useful information about exam. You can get benefit from these sources.
Facebook Groups- There are some useful groups where some useful articles are uploaded by different authors which can be useful in UPSC exam preparation. But avoid joining fake UPSC groups where no useful information is available.
YouTube Channel-There are some good YouTube channels which are very informative and you can utilize them for upsc exam preparation. Unacademy, UPSC Exam Guide, StudyIqOption etc are some of the example of them.
How To Prepare UPSC Exam With Notes-
Notes are important in UPSC exam preparation, most people love making notes which is one of the best practice in exam preparation.
But there are some people who are in doubt if they should make notes or not. Some people think that making notes is waste of time. Let’s explore the benefits of making notes in UPSC exam preparation.
Notes are the key in upsc exam preparation at the last time, As we know revision is very important in upsc exam preparation and notes play very crucial role here.
Notes are very useful when you have to revise complete upsc syllabus in less than a month. If you have made notes , you can easily revise them in time.
Offline Notes/Online Notes-
Notes can be made online or offline based on your comfort level. Offline notes can be made in simple diary or notes book but online notes can be made with help of some Android APP some of them are Feedly, Evernote and Pocket.
There app are very useful in making online notes for upsc exam preparation. These app are free of cost and available in app store.
While making notes, you can follow thumb rule for the world limit. 1/10 is the word limit for note making. for example if the paragraph contains 100 words, you should be able to summarize it into 10 words.
Notes should be in keywords always not in detail format. If you make notes in this pattern , you can easily save lot of time for other subjects.
Studies have proved that if you write something , you remember it easily. So when you make notes, you are actually writing something which makes it easy to understand and memorise for you.
So keep writing and start making notes for upsc exam preparation.
Revision is Important-
You have been told in the school to read less and revise more which is actually best way to prepare any exam . In upsc exam preparation, you have very large stuff which need to be revised in time. if you do not revise , you tend to forget it soon.
It has been proven that if you do not revise in a week , you forgot most of which you read in last week. if you do not revise in a month, you forget more than 80% of what you read . So one thing is very clear that you have to revise books in time to prepare it well.
Make a time table and provide time for each and every subject decisively so that you cover entire upsc syllabus and revise completely.
You can prepare exam with job !
UPSC exam also attract serving personnel of the government and private sector personnels due its opportunity to serve larger people and make a difference in their life. People with job wants prepare upsc exam but they have some limitations which can be easily solved.
They do not have the luxury for 10-15 hours for study because they have to work at least 7-8 hours in officer.
Their work schedule may not allow them to join regular coaching classes.
They have to deal with extra pressure along with study so it become little difficult for them to prepare upsc exam along with job.
But we have good news for them that every year large number of serving people are clearing upsc exam with flying colours. You can also clear upsc exam if prepared it in right way.
Here are some key tips for you which will help you in making your upsc dream come true.
Time Management For UPSC Preparation-
UPSC exam is like a marathon and you do not the luxury to write it multiple times in a year, if you fail in very first stage then you will have to wait for a year. So you need to Prepare UPSC exam in such a way that you clear it in your first attempt and this article is mainly written for this only.
UPSC exam needs 5-6 hours docussed preparation daily and it can be managed easily if you make a well thought-out study plan.
After 8 hour fo duty , you are left with 16 hours , now you can take out 6 hours from them easily for upsc exam preparation.
You can utilize your officer free time for your exam preparation. When you time in officer, you can read some magazines, newspapers and notes . You have to make use of 10,20,30 minutes for your exam preparation. These 10-20 minutes daily will be converted into hours later.
So utilize every minutes which is available for you and this practice will actually helps you in long run.
We do not suggest to misuse the officer time for which you are being paid. Make use of FREE time whenever you get in officer or during travel.
If you are serving , you need not to worry about back-up plan as most of aspirants struggle for this. So the psychological advantage with you always comparing to those who are unemployed.
You can easily get what you want because you will never feel lack of financial assistance but many aspirants have to think about it when they have already past 3-4 years in upsc exam preparation.
Having job and working with people make you more responsible and better personality, you can handle things in much better way.
Working person more experience of work-life balance, working culture so he/she can manage things more easily it will help in upsc exam preparation and letter in service.
You can access coaching classes online and buy them online , it will help you in saving time effort to physically joining them
Time is very important aspect in UPSC exam preparation where more than 9 lakh aspirants are applying for this exam and studying for 7-14 hours in a day. It is not easy to beat them unless you properly manage your study time.
You may be a working personor full time preparing aspirants , the only thing which will take you close to success in UPSC exam is how well you manage your study time.
There is no hard and fast rule in UPSC exam preparation that you have to read ( 1,2,3……18 hours ) in a day. This totally depends on your ability, strength to sit and read books.
But The syllabus of UPSC is very large and need 5-6 hours daily to cover it in a year if you do have knowledge of the basic of subject( 6th to 12th class.
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You can prepare exam without coaching !
There are many assumption on internet that you can not clear upsc exam without coaching institutes etc. This is very said that many aspirants just join coaching classes that they are afraid of this assumption. Before we decide if we should join any coaching class or not , we must know the reasons for joining coaching classes.
The very first reason that why we should join UPSC coaching class ? we have many reasons for joining coaching classes-
Coaching classes are very helpful in guiding you in right direction. if you are new and do not know how to prepare upsc exam chances are high that you will join them.
Coaching institutes provides ready made study material for you which save your time. They will ready everything for you and charge some fee for that. If you do not have enough time or you are a working person, coaching institutes can help you in upsc exam preparation.
Coaching institutes have expert in their respective fields and they have very long experience of teaching , you can get advantage of their experience and teaching.
Coaching institutes can guide you whenever you are in need so you can join them.
Focus On Self-Study-
Self-study is the key to success in UPSC exam, Large number of aspirants clear UPSC exam by just studying at home. There is an assumption that you should join coaching institutes if you want clear IAS exam.
Things have changed now, sufficient study material is available online and offline so you need not to worry much about that. Most of the leading coaching institutes are providing FREE study material in different platform like BLOGS, YouTube which can easily accessible form Mobile and PC from home.
Even if you join any coaching classes , your success depends on your self-study not on coaching class preparation. Coaching classes can provide your direction, study material but you are the one who has to study and prepare it.
Coaching institutes are only helpful if they are genuine, they have well teaching faculty, experience experts otherwise they are just business to make profit.
Coaching institutes are in big cities only so everyone can not go there due to several reasons like financial, security but you can overcome this problem by following methods.
Most of coaching institutes have their online presence , they provide useful information, guidance in websites and which is free of cost (in most websites).
Most coaching institutes have YouTube channels where they regularly upload classroom videos and most of them are free, some charge few bucks.
Coaching institutes charge very fee and which is not affordable for many of aspirants so you can access their online videos , article for guidance.
There are some very good website which provide lots of useful stuff free of cost and helping aspirants realising their upsc dream, you can visit them regularly. ( Insightsonindia, clearias are few example of them.
After all you are the one who have to study, prepare everything. No coaching institutes can do it for you, self-study is the key to success in upsc exam. if you have basic knowledge about upsc exam, you can clear it with self-study without coaching.
Enroll For Quality Test Series-
Test series are the set of question papers specially designed by expert to test the preparation level of aspirants and practice the question papers before actual exam. Test series are similar to the actual exam papers so it gives a feel of real exam if attempted in well timed condition.
The aim of joining test series is to test yourself and find the mistakes and correct them before actual exam. It has been found that if you attempt mock test before exam , you can boost your score in prelims and mains exam.
If you attempt mock test before exam, you can find the weak points & strong points and correct it well in time.
You can be familiar with the exam process and manage the time in examination hall. You also can check how many questions are attempted in given time frame so you can increase your speed if needed.
When you join test series , you compete with lakhs of aspirants across the country and know your ranking among them.
You can join any FREE MOCK test series or paid ,it depends on the availability of the test series . there are many coaching institutes which provides test series and charge some money. You can also join them.
The best time to join test series is just after finishing your complete UPSC course once. You can also attempt mock test any time based on your comfort level.
Motivate Yourself Regularly-`
Motivation is needed in UPSC exam because UPSC exam test your patience and last for a year. If you are not able to clear in initial time , it can take 4-6 years to crack and make your name in the list. Being motivated for a long time is little difficult but it is very important otherwise you will quit the UPSC exam preparation.
Large number of aspirants leave UPSC Exam Preparation due lack of motivation and patience , so if you are one who can be easily demotivated , can try these few tips while preparing for this exam.
Motivation can be two types- Internal motivation and external motivation.
Internal motivation is the best one if you have because it has very strong reason to keep you motivated for doing anything for longer period.
External motivation can be short time motivation but it also work to keep motivated for exam preparation.
Do not start anything new while preparing for this exam because it will change your daily lifestyle and affect your preparation.
I hope these key tips will help you in clearing UPSC exam in your very first attempt and you can find your name in the final list of UPSC results soon.
How To Prepare For Ias After 12th ?
There are a number of assumptions that one should avoid ias preparation before completion of graduation.Some expert believe if you want to crack IAS in your first attempt, you should start preparing for this exam as early as possible.
If you are in 12th class, here is the complete guide for you how to approach for this exam with your school syllabus.
The minimum educational qualification for ias exam is a degree from any recognized university which are approved by competent authority. There is also minimum age limit for all the students which is fixed at 21 years as of now. Read more about IAS eligibility criteria from here.
If you already have decided to choose civil service as a career than your target is very clear and it should be to clear IAS in your first attempt and reach to the top most post of the administrative service.
As a student of 12th class, you have your school syllabus to complete and which should be your priority.
After that if you get some time which you want to utilize for IAS preparation, you can start reading newspaper which is the most important study material in UPSC exam preparation.
UPSC is asking so many questions from current affairs portion and newspaper is very good source to cover this section.
The current affairs of today may not be useful for you after 3 years but once you develop a habit of newspaper reading , you will easily able to analyse things after some experience.
Newspaper reading also helps in developing a new approach towards the world events, issues and improve your thinking ability and awareness.
Importance Of NCERT In UPSC Exam Preparation-
You may not be aware about the importance of NCERT books which you have read from class 6th to 12th but once you complete your graduation and start preparing for ias , you will see that many question for prelims exam are directly coming from NCER books.
UPSC asks questions directly from NCERT books of class 6th to 12th in prelims and mains exam, a number of IAS aspirants buy NCERT books and read while preparing for this exam.
So, you can focus deeply on your NCERT books and prepare them seriously. NCERT books are very useful for IAS prelims and mains exam preparation.
The least things you can do while in your school days- Store all of your NCERT books at your home so that you need not to buy them later while preparing for UPSC exam.
Focus On Your Basic And Improve Them-
UPSC test the basic understanding of the subject and analytical ability, decision making, leadership types of some quality in a student and you have enough time to develop these quality which will help you later.
UPSC syllabus is very wide and cover almost everything under the sun so start developing a habit of reading books. This habit will help you in IAS preparation where one has to read a number of books to cover entire UPSC Syllabus.
Improve Your Writing Skill-
UPSC mains has 9 paper as of now and all the papers are subjective in nature where everyone have to write long answer in the world limit of 250 to 500 words per questions.
To answer complete paper within 3 hours of time is very difficult for most of aspirants which leads many questions un-answered.
So week writing skills is very harmful in UPSC exam because it can destroy your IAS dream by loosing many marks in the exam due to un-attempted questions.
If your writing speed is slow, you will not able to finish all the questions even if you know them.
So develop a impressive and speedy writing skill which will help you in answer writing in UPSC mains exam and you can score high marks.
Improve Your Communication Skills-
Communication skill comprises of lots things and listening, verbal communication, non-verbal communication, self-confidence,clarity of though, expression etc are some of the most common and required skills which are tested in UPSC exam.
All these skill takes time to develop and improve, so you as a student have enough time to look on these aspects and improve if required. These small-small points will boost your personality and skill for IAS exam.
There is a 275 marks personality test exam in UPSC CSE where aspirants are test one many areas and some of them I have mentioned above. Interview is very crucial to score high marks for an aspirants and improve overall ranking in the exam.
If you start working on all these area from now, you can easily perform better than other who just start before interview.
Start IAS Course Books Now-
After 12th class, you will have complete your degree which may be BA,BSC,B-tech,BBA etc . Its time to prepare IAS with the IAS Books which are exclusively made for IAS exam preparation. one and half year of minimum time is required for IAS Syllabus to complete before exam.
The another important step is very confusing for new student. The selection of right kind of books in right number. You need best UPSC books for UPSC exam which can cover entire UPSC Syllabus in details. Here is the list of complete UPSC Books for IAS exam in details. Click to read them Now.
If You have complete first two important step in IAS preparation, you have already accomplished most difficult task which can lead your towards success in IAS exam.
After that you can follow other guidelines for How to prepare for ias exam and other important tips which will save your time and increase your self-confidence in the exam. You can read these articles for IAS exam preparation-
How To Prepare For Ias After 12th ? Complete Guide
UPSC Full Form-UPSC stands for UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION which is India’s premier central recruiting agency conducts civil services exams for various all india services and central services. It is also responsible for the appointment, transfer, promotion and disciplinary matters related to these services.The headquarter of the UPSC is located in New Delhi.
UPSC conducts various exams and CSE is one of the most competitive exam in our country where more than a million aspirants apply each year and test their capabilities and few hundreds of them clear it. Civil Services is said to be one of the most difficult in India so clearing this exam is a dream for many youths .
You can clear CSE (IAS,IPS,IRS) exam with right strategies, best UPSC books and hard work. So lets know more about UPSC CSE exam pattern, its syllabus , preparation tips etc.
2-UPSC Online Forms-
UPSC online forms are easily available on its official website in the month of march to april every year. These are two months when UPSC issue notification for civil services exam. You have to apply for UPSC online and there is no offline registration method for this exam.
If you want apply for UPSC online , you can visit this link which will take you in the official website of the UPSC where two step registration process is available for aspirants.
3- UPSC Exam Pattern-
UPSC exam is conducted in three phases which are well known as Prelims , Mains and Interview. The very first stage is called Prelims which is also divided into two papers-
3.1-Prelims Paper-01 General Studies-
Prelims paper 1 which has 100 questions and each question carry 2 mark. Negative marking is applicable in both the prelims paper, so 1/3 of the marks will be deducted for each wrong answer. You will be given complete 3 hours to solve these question and clear it. Read more about UPSC Prelims Syllabus. UPSC Prelims Books.
Prelims paper -01 marks are very important in prelims exam because these marks will be counted for the prelims merit for mains selection. Prelims paper -02 which is CSAT marks are counted for qualifying purpose only.
3.2-Prelims Paper -02 CAST-
Prelims paper-02 is qualifying in nature , This paper consists questions from maths to english comprehension , reasoning etc. This paper is made to test your basic skill of these subjects so you need to score 33% marks in this paper to qualify prelims exam.
Those aspirants who clear UPSC prelims exam write mains exam which is conducted in the months of october (it may change , check latest notification) . Last year data shows that more than 9 lakh aspirants apply for prelims exam and hardly 12000 were selected for UPSC Mains exam.
First two paper which are (language papers) qualifying in nature so its marks are not counted for Main merit list. You have to qualify these two paper and score high in the rest 7 papers to get a call for UPSC Interview. Past results shows that hardly 2500-3000 aspirants are called for UPSC Interview out of 12000 to 13000 aspirants. So prepare mains smartly and score high marks. Read Best Books for Mains in UPSC Online.
4-UPSC Online Registration-
Once you visit the official website of UPSC exam,you will have to go through registration process which is available in two steps. You must complete both the registration process carefully to complete your application form.
This is the first step of UPSC exam registration where you are asked to fill some of your details which includes your personal details like-Name , Fathers name , mothers name , age and category etc. Once you fill all the required details you have to select your examination centre where you will give exam.
Make sure that you give only those centre where UPSC can conduct exams , it will also mention in the form where you can choose any 4 places for the examination centre.
Note- The choice of the examination centre is given based on the availability of the seats and who apply early for these available seats. If you want your examination seat near your location , you are advised to apply online as early as possible.
Once the seats are filled , you may be send to other places for the exams which may be uncomfortable for you so try early.
This is the second step when you will have to submit your latest Photo and signature scanned in certain size which is fixed by UPSC in its notification. Once you upload all these information , you will have to pay some FEE which is around Rs-100 for the general category and exempted for some categories.
You can check when you will apply for UPSC exam online. Once you complete this process, you can check your details once again and edit it if anything finds wrong then submit it.
UPSC Online will send a SMS in your registered mobile number which will be your reference number for the download of UPSC admit card. try to save it or write in somewhere so that you can get it when in need. Once you complete your UPSC ONLINE registration process, you can resume your UPSC exam preparation.6-UPSC Online Study Material-
5-Download UPSC Syllabus (PDF)-
Now you are well aware of UPSC exam pattern, how to apply for UPSC Online in details so the next step is to know the UPSC exam syllabus. Knowing UPSC syllabus is the most important step in UPSC exam preparation. Preparing UPSC CSE exam without knowing its whole syllabus is directionless and it will never take you to success.
The UPSC Syllabus for various papers is based on the UPSC official notification so you can prepare UPSC exam in much better way. You can also check the latest UPSC exam syllabus from its official website.
6-UPSC Online Study Material-
The best part of UPSC exam preparation is that you can prepare UPSC Online from your home. Due to change in the UPSC exam pattern, UPSC exam is more focussed on current affairs and daily events. UPSC is asking more and more question form current affairs and general studies subject.
An estimate shows that more than 80% of UPSC prelims questions are coming from Current affairs and most of them can be easily prepared from online sources like Websites, News , Newspapers , magazine etc.
6.1-UPSC Exam Books-
UPSC books are still the best source of preparation in UPSC exam. Selection of right kind of UPSC books is must to clear UPSC exam. There are hundreds of books on one subject and such a large number of books are the big confusion in the mind of aspirants.
So Aspirants end buying wrong books due to lack of awareness, we have made an exclusive list of best UPSC books for UPSC Prelims and mains exam.
There books are based on UPSC syllabus and suggested by UPSC topper every year so you can get hold of them to prepare UPSC exam in right way.Check it out now.
7-How To Approach UPSC Prelims-
As we know UPSC prelims exam is totally different from UPSC mains exam. The demand in prelims exam is more about facts and concepts . So you have to approach prelims exam in such a way that you cover all the section of prelims syllabus in details.
UPSC Prelims paper 1 cover complete general studies syllabus from current affairs to humanities subject, science, art & culture. It is not possible to read everything under the sun and memorise it but we can do selective reading which should be based on cost benefits strategy.
Suppose a subject has 5% questions weightage in the Prelims exam , we should give 5% time to this subject only and rest of the time should go to other subject which carry more marks.
More focus need to be give to current affairs because UPSC is asking more question from current affairs section. Daily newspaper reading is very help in current affairs preparation. The Hindi & Indian Express are two good english newspaper for current affairs preparation.
7.1-Note Making is Key-
Notes are the key in UPSC prelims exam preparation , UPSC syllabus is very large and to memorise it in very short time is very difficult so notes play very crucial role. Notes can be handy when you have to revise complete syllabus in last moment.
Notes can be made online or offline . Notes should be very precise and clear to understand then only it will benefits you in revision. Long notes are time consuming and boring in revision so avoid such type of notes.
7.2-Revision is the key to Success-
Revision is the key to success in the UPSC exam especially in prelims. Research shows that we forgot most of what we read in a week and more than 90% in a month if we do not revise. So revision helps us to memorise key facts which are useful in prelims exam.
Reading less and revising more is the key to success in nay exam , so 1-2 book / source are enough for one subject in upsc exam , no need to read 10 books on one topic. By following above strategy , you not only save enough time for other subject but also read important stuff based on upsc syllabus.
8-How To Approach UPSC mains-
UPSC mains exam is more about analytical & Basic understanding of the topics, as UPSC states that it test the basic understanding of the concept in UPSC exam. UPSC mains has 9 papers where 2 language papers are qualifying in nature and rest of 7 papers marks are counted for the final merit.
4 papers are general studies which covers almost all the subject from science to humanities, you need to prepare all as per UPSC syllabus. The best way to approach upsc mains exam it read UPSC syllabus first , note down the topics under each paper and then start preparing them individually.
Current affairs is very important in mains also so daily newspaper reading is must, you can not skip newspaper reading in upsc mains exam.
UPSC mains exam is all about writing long and high quality answer in very limited time period. Answer writing practice is the only way to improve your speed and accuracy in the mains exam otherwise you will end-up leaving 2-5 question untouched.
If you do regular writing practice, you also improve your memorising ability so you can do wonder by following these key tips in UPSC exam.
8.2-Selection of Right Optional Subject is Important-
UPSC Mains has two optional paper as of now , (it may change in future) which carry 500 marks and also decisive in the final rank. If you have good command on any of the subject , you can score high marks and boost your mains score to new heights.
Interview call is always happy moment for everyone who is looking for a job and it becomes more enjoyable when you are called for UPSC Interview. The preparation for Interview in UPSC exam is little different then other job interviews.
In UPSC exam, Interview carry 275 marks which are deciding factor in your ranking in UPSC CSE. Single mark can change your ranking from IPS to IAS.
UPSC Interview is all about testing your suitability for the various group A & B posts by UPSC . So prepare as much as you can about yourself, your surroundings , your city, international happening or burning issues etc. Current affairs will help you in preparing some part of UPSC interview so be regular with newspaper.
These are some key areas where most of UPSC Interview Questions are asked-
Your Bio-data related question.
Family Profession related question.
About your home city, anything famous in your city.
Latest national & international heppening,
Some unexpected and surprising questions which you may never heard before,
Current affairs is the key in interview also.
10-Download UPSC Admit Card-
Once you fill UPSC registration form online, you get a registration number which is used to download UPSC admit card . The admit card can be downloaded from UPSC official website.
You just need to visit upsc official website and hit the download button for admit card. The admit card for UPSC CSE exam are issued just before UPSC Prelims exam so keep in touch.
This is the most awaited time when UPSC announces its results. UPSC prelims results are issues just before UPSC mains exam. After prelims exam you can check your question with the the answer keys provided by coaching institutes to get an Idea otherwise you can start preparing for UPSC mains .
If you will wait for the official answer key it will take long time and you will not get enough time to prepare for mains exam. So the best way is to check your prelims answer key and prepare accordingly. The Official website for UPSC results –Click to Download.
UPSC Previous year question papers are also very helpful in knowing the scope of the question in the exam. Once you start solving the previous year question papers, you actually practicing for the high marks in the exam.
Those who practice previous year question papers of UPSC exam score better in the prelims and mains exam. If you solve last 10 year UPSC question papers, you are solving more than 2000 question well in advance.
Though the questions may not repeat in the exam but they will be similar to those questions which have already solved so it is highly recommended to solve UPSC previous year question papers as many as you can before the exam.
Benefits of Solving UPSC Question Papers-
“Practice makes man perfect” and it is also applicable in UPSC exam. If you solve upsc question papers of previous year, you get very clear idea that what types of questions you are going to face in the actual exam.
In UPSC exam one mark makes huge difference in the final ranking, even one mark can change your ranking from IAS to IPS so try to grab every mark in the UPSC exam. These are some of the benefits of solving UPSC question papers of previous years.
You practice lots of questions well before exam and which boost your confidence in the examination hall.
If you solve upsc question papers of previous years, you get complete idea of how UPSC asks question in the exams. You can easily decide which to attempt and which one to leave.
Why Not To Avoid UPSC Previous years question paper ?
Avoiding previous years question papers can cost you huge and I ma going to tell you how it will cost you that much. If you are new to this exam, you might have questions in minds about the nature of question, its difficulty level.
If you never solved upsc previous years question papers, you may not know how much time the question is needed in the examination hall.
You also may not be aware about the types of question which will only kill your time in the examination hall.
IAS toppers suggest to practice lot of question papers well in advance so that you become used to these types of question papers.
SO it is strongly suggested that you must practice previous year question paper well in advance to avoid last time hurry.
If you solve at least 1-2 test series and some old question papers before exam, you will definitely see the boost in your marks in all the papers.
Download UPSC Question Paper Prelims-
Next big question is how to get UPSC question papers of previous years In PDF easily. Here I will tell you how you can get access to all the UPSC question papers for last 23 years of Prelims exams. You will also get the PDF file of previous year question papers from the links given later.
There are two ways of getting UPSC previous year question papers-
You can buy a book online which will cover more than last 23 years of prelims question papers with answer in details. If you solve these questions most of your prelims preparation will be done . You just need to get this book online which will cost you not more than RS-250 rupee.
The other way of getting UPSC question papers is to visit UPSC official website and download in PDF format. The disadvantage of the PDF format is that you will only get questions not the answers. For answer you will have to try yourself.
Download UPSC Question Paper Mains-
If you are interested in downloading UPSC question paper in PDF of previous years, you can click on the links given below. all the PDF can be saved at your PC for later revision. I have uploaded UPSC question papers based on the years so download as per your need.
Here is the list of Previous year question papers of UPSC exam which includes Civil Services, Engineering Service, Combined Defense Service etc. You can download all the question papers for 2018 years from here.Downloading upsc question papers is safe from here.
Here are the other upsc exam question papers for aspirants who are also preparing for other exams like CDS, Engineering Services. You can get the official PDF files of question papers published by Union Public Service Commission.
So you can download these question papers and practice them at home to get high mark in the exam. Downloads from this website is safe.
The question papers are listed as per the year of the exams, so that you can easily get previous years question papers for all the upsc exams from here.
If you need much older question papers you can leave your query in comment section or mail us we will be happy to help you.As of now we have uploaded upsc question papers from 2014 to till today. We will regularly update this article and add new question papers for upsc civil services aspirants.
UPSC conducts various government exam other than civil services if you want question papers for other exam like CDS, NDA, IFS, we can provide them all here on request. Thanks for reading now your turn to comment about this post….
1-How the previous years question papers will helps students getting more marks ?
Solving previous years question papers not only helps you solve same types of question paper but also boost your confidence which is very important for a students in the examination hall. If you have already solve some hundreds of same types question papers, you can easily solve question in the actual exam. Solving these question papers also helps you in your course revision.
2- What if one do not solve upsc previous years question papers ?
If someone does want to solve question papers, that person is already loosing some marks. Because solving previous years question papers helps in revision of the syllabus, building confidence, improving your speed in the exam and time management.
3- Where to download UPSC previous years question papers easily?
The easiest way to download upsc previous years question papers is from here-https://upsckey.in/upsc-question-papers. You can also visit upsc official website.
UPSC Economics Syllabus for Optional Paper is well explained in this article , you can note down the content of the upsc economics syllabus or download PDF file. Economics is one of the most loved optional subject for UPSC mains exam specially for commerce aspirants.
There are many aspirants who have done MBA and prepare for UPSC exam, commerce is the first choice for them in UPSC mains. There are some key benefits of having commerce optional for Mains exam.
If you have a commerce background, you know most of the basic concept much clear than a new aspirants from different educational background.
Economics can be taken as optional by science graduates because many topics are related to science & maths.
Sufficient study material is available online / Offline for economics subject so you need not to worry about study material.
This is scoring subject so you can score high marks if worked hard and read right kind of UPSC BOOKS.
If you are interested in economic activities,concepts and it excites you then go for it as optional subject.
The upsc economic syllabus for optional is not so large , you can easily revise it many times after reading thoroughly.
(d) Modern Welfare Criteria: Pareto Hicks & Scitovsky, Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem, A.K. Sen’s Social Welfare Function.
Approaches to Employment Income and Interest Rate determination:Classical, Keynes (IS-LM) curve, Neo classical synthesis and New classical, Theories of Interest Rate Determination and Interest Rate Structure.
Money – Banking and Finance:
(a) Demand for and Supply of Money: Money Multiplier Quantity Theory of Money (Fisher, Pique and Friedman) and Keynes Theory on Demand for Money, Goals and Instruments of Monetary Management in Closed and Open Economies. Relation between the Central Bank and the Treasury.Proposal for ceiling on growth rate of money.
(b) Public Finance and its Role in Market Economy: In stabilization of supply, allocation of resources and in distribution and development. Sources of Govt. revenue, forms of Taxes and Subsidies, their incidence and effects. Limits to taxation, loans, crowding- out effects and limits to borrowings. Public Expenditure and its effects.
(a) Old and New Theories of International Trade
Terms of Trade and Offer Curve.
Product Cycle and Strategic Trade Theories.
Trade as an engine of growth and theories of under development in an open economy.
(b) Forms of Protection: Tariff and quota
(c) Balance of Payments Adjustments: Alternative Approaches.
Price versus income, income adjustments under fixed exchange rates,
Theories of Policy Mix
Exchange rate adjustments under capital mobility
Floating Rates and their Implications for Developing Countries: Currency Boards.
Trade Policy and Developing Countries.
BOP, adjustments and Policy Coordination in open economy macro-model.
Trade Blocks and Monetary Unions.
WTO: TRIMS, TRIPS, Domestic Measures, Different Rounds of WTO talks.
5. Growth and Development:
Theories of growth: Harrod’s model,
Lewis model of development with surplus labour
Balanced and Unbalanced growth,
Human Capital and Economic Growth.
Research and Development and Economic Growth
(b) Process of Economic Development of Less developed countries: Myrdal and Kuznets economic development and structural change: Role of Agriculture in Economic Development of less developed countries.Economic development and International Trade and Investment, Role of Multinationals.
(d) Planning and Economic Development: changing role of Markets and Planning, Private Public Partnership
(e) Welfare indicators and measures of growth – Human Development Indices. The basic needs approach.
(f) Development and Environmental Sustainability– Renewable and Non Renewable Resources,Environmental Degradation, Intergenerational equity development.
UPSC Economics Syllabus Optional Paper-02
Indian Economy in Pre Independence Era: Land System and its changes, Commercialization of agriculture, Drain theory, Laissez faire theory and critique. Manufacture and Transport: Jute, Cotton,Railways, Money and Credit.
Indian Economy after Independence:
The Pre Liberalization Era: Contribution of Vakil, Gadgil and V.K.R.V. Rao.
Agriculture:Land Reforms and land tenure system, Green Revolution and capital formation in agriculture,Industry Trends in composition and growth, Role of public and private sector, Small scale and cottage industries.
National and Per capita income: patterns, trends, aggregate and Sectoral composition and changes their.Broad factors determining National Income and distribution, Measures of poverty, Trends in poverty and inequality.
The Post Liberalization Era: New Economic Reform and Agriculture: Agriculture and WTO, Food processing, Subsidies,Agricultural prices and public distribution system, Impact of public expenditure on agricultural growth.
New Economic Policy and Industry: Strategy of industrialization, Privatization, Disinvestments, Role Of foreign direct investment and multinationals.
New Economic Policy and Trade: Intellectual property rights: Implications of TRIPS, TRIMS, GATS and new EXIM policy.
Planning: From central Planning to indicative planning, Relation between planning and markets for growth and decentralized planning: 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.
New Economic Policy and Employment: Employment and poverty, Rural wages, Employment Generation, Poverty alleviation schemes, New Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
New Exchange Rate Regime: Partial and full convertibility, Capital account convertibility.
New Economic Policy and Public Finance: Fiscal Responsibility Act, Twelfth Finance Commission and Fiscal Federalism and Fiscal Consolidation.New Economic Policy and Monetary system. Role of RBI under the new regime.
Link For UPSC economics Syllabus Optional Paper-01 & 02- Download Now
To know UPSC Syllabus is the first priority for every aspirants in UPSC exam preparation. UPSC has defined its optional paper syllabus for UPSC exam where more than 20 subjects are listed.
Public administration is one of the favorite subject for large number of aspirants in UPSC mains exam due to various reasons. Some of them are given below.
1-Aspirants choose optional subject based on their interest, educational background, length of the subject and marks potential in the mains exam.
2-Public administration is the most opted optional subject by engineers , doctors and science graduates because this subject is all about administration which is needed in service later
3-Public administration has limited syllabus which is easy in revising thats why many aspirants choose it.
So let’s explore topics of Public administration optional subject for UPSC mains exam in details-
Public Administration Paper-01
Introduction: Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration; Wilson’s vision of Public Administration; Evolution of the discipline and its present status; New Public Administration; Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, Privatization, Globalization; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public Management.
Administrative Thought: Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory; Weber’s bureaucratic model – its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others); Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Simon’s decision-making theory; Participative Management (R. Likert, C. Argyris, D. McGregor).
Development Dynamics: Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; ‘Anti Development thesis’; Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of liberalization on administration in developing countries; Women and development – the self-help group movement.
Personnel Administration: Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pay and service conditions; employer- employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct; Administrative ethics.
Public Policy: Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualization, planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.
Techniques of Administrative Improvement: Organization and methods, Work study and work management; e-governance and information technology; Management aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM.
Financial Administration: Monetary and fiscal policies; Public borrowings and public debt Budgets – types and forms; Budgetary process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit.
Administrative Behavior: Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories – content, process and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Modern.
Organizations: Theories – systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies, Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships; Regulatory Authorities; Public – Private Partnerships.
Accountability and control: Concepts of accountability and control; Legislative, Executive and Judicial control over administration; Citizen and Administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations; Civil society; Citizen’s Charters; Right to Information; Social audit.
Administrative Law: Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Administrative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tribunals.
Comparative Public Administration: Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different countries; status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models and their critique.
Public Administration Paper-02
Evolution of Indian Administration: Kautilya’s Arthashastra; Mughal administration; Legacy of British rule in politics and administration – Indianization of public services, revenue administration, district administration, local self-government.
Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government: Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism; Political culture; Bureaucracy and democracy; Bureaucracy and development.
Public Sector Undertakings: Public sector in modern India; Forms of Public Sector Undertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability, and control; Impact of liberalization and privatization.
District Administration since Independence: Changing role of the Collector; Union state- local relations; Imperatives of development management and law and order administration; District administration and democratic decentralization.
Civil Services: Constitutional position; Structure, recruitment, training and capacity-building; Good governance initiatives; Code of conduct and discipline; Staff associations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mechanism; Civil service neutrality; Civil service activism.
Financial Management: Budget as a political instrument; Parliamentary control of public expenditure; Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area; Accounting techniques; Audit; Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
Union Government and Administration: Executive, Parliament, Judiciary – structure, functions, work processes; Recent trends; Intragovernmental relations; Cabinet Secretariat; Prime Minister’s Office; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Departments; Boards; Commissions; Attached offices; Field organizations.
Plans and Priorities: Machinery of planning; Role, composition and functions of the Planning Commission and the National Development Council; ‘Indicative’ planning; Process of plan formulation at Union and State levels; Constitutional Amendments (1992) and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice.
State Government and Administration: Union-State administrative, legislative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Governor; Chief Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates.
Administrative Reforms since Independence: Major concerns; Important Committees and Commissions; Reforms in financial management and human resource development; Problems of implementation.
Rural Development: Institutions and agencies since independence; Rural development programmes: foci and strategies; Decentralization and Panchayati Raj; 73rd Constitutional amendment.
Urban Local Government: Municipal governance: main features, structures, finance and problem areas; 74th Constitutional Amendment; Global local debate; New localism; Development dynamics, politics and administration with special reference to city management.
Law and Order Administration: British legacy; National Police Commission; Investigative agencies; Role of central and state agencies including paramilitary forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insurgency and terrorism; Criminalization of politics and administration; Police-public relations; Reforms in Police.
Significant issues in Indian Administration: Values in public service; Regulatory Commissions; National Human Rights Commission; Problems of administration in coalition regimes; Citizen-administration interface; Corruption and administration; Disaster management.
Click to download UPSC Official Syllabus PDF File.–Download
Indian polity books are one of the most important books in UPSC exam to score good marks in prelims and mains.In India polity books we study about Indian constitution , polity, administration, parliament, state machinery and its functions. We also study about the political system of our country, constitutional bodies, government and its working in details.
The Indian polity books cover large part of the Prelims paper -01 and Mains exam paper-02. In prelims paper -01 , you can expect 10-20 questions directly from indian polity section or 20% questions Approx. If you prepare this subject smartly , you not only score good marks in UPSC prelims exam but also clear prelims stage.
Indian polity is one of the easiest subject to study and score good marks only if you read right kind of books in right number. UPSC has defined indian polity subject syllabus for prelims and mains exam in details so you can follow the UPSC syllabus to study polity in organised way.
Here is the list of top 5 Indian polity books which are very useful for every UPSC aspirants to cover entire Indian polity syllabus. All the books are well written by reputed authors , read by hundreds of IAS topper for last some years so you can read this book for prelims & mains exam.
1-This book is written by m laxmikanth , a well know author , this books is one of the best selling book for Indian polity for UPSC exam ( prelims & mains ).
2-The content of this book are systematically written in such a sequence that you can remember all the topics easily. You just need one month time to read this book completely ( 6-8 hour daily) for UPSC exam.
3- You need not to make notes from this book because this book is itself like a perfect note. You will enjoy reading this book.
1-This is another wonderful book by M laxmikanth for Indian Polity & governance subject. This book contains everything about Indian Polity , Governance, constitution , Government bodies etc in details.
2- ALl the topics are well explained in details and this book is very useful for UPSC mains exam. This book is descriptive type where every topics are explained in details.
3-You can read this book along with Indian polity book by Laxmikanth , after that you need not read any more books for Indian polity & governance subject.
1-This book is published by Spectrum Publication which is leading Publisher for UPSC exam books. This book covers topics like Indian constitution , Governance, Development , Social justice.
2- All the above mentioned topics are part of UPSC syllabus for Prelims & mains exam paper -02. This book covers all the syllabus for Indian Polity In details. ( either you can read Indian Polity By M laxmikanth or This Book.)
UPSC Exam Pattern-Civil services exam which is also known as UPSC exam, one of the most competitive exam in India where more than 1 million aspirants compete for some hundreds seats. Clearing this exam gives you opportunity to serve nation from administration departments to diplomatic post in foreign countries.
So having such a wonderful career in UPSC exam, aspirants are always seeking right information about UPSC exam and want to clear it as soon as possible. Before you start your preparation , you must know the very basic things about exam, how its pattern, syllabus , eligibility etc.
In this article we will tell you each and everything about UPSC exam pattern, IAS exam pattern , UPSC exam syllabus, UPSC exam books , Question papers and many more. So let’s start-
Civil service exam is conducted by UPSC every year which start in the month of may-june and last around in a year. The UPSC exam notification are issues in the month of march every year when you are asked to fill-up your application online through its official website.
UPSC exam pattern is divided into 3 phases which are known as Prelims ,Mains and interview. Prelims is the first step and for qualifying in nature for the mains exam where mains and interview marks are counted for final merit . Based on marks of mains and interview , you are selected for the various posts as per your rank and vacancies. So let’s explore more about UPSC exam pattern-
Prelims Exam Pattern-
Prelims Paper-01 Prelims is the first exam as per UPSC exam pattern which consists of two paper. Prelims paper-01 is general studies paper which marks are counted for prelims merit ( cut-off ) where prelims paper-02 CSAT marks are not counted for prelims merit. CSAT paper is only for qualifying in nature for prelims exam.
So you need to score high in Prelims paper-01 to clear prelims exam as well as passing marks in CSAT paper ( prelims paper-02 ).
Prelims Paper -01
Counted for Merit
Prelims Paper-02 ( CSAT)
Prelims Paper-02- Prelims paper 02 which is CSAT is just for qualifying in nature in UPSC prelims exam. This paper is made to test the basic numerical , reasoning, english grammar abilities of the aspirants. So you need to just score minimum passing marks in this paper to clear it.
Before the introduction of CSAT , Prelims paper-02 marks were also counted for Prelims merit but now UPSC has changed its pattern and introduced CSAT in place of Prelims paper-02. It is recommended to read these books for UPSC Prelims Paper-02 CSAT to clear it.
UPSC exam eligibility are the basic requirement which must full-fill by aspirants before applying for UPSC exam. It includes Your age limit, minimum educational qualification, medical fitness etc. It is strongly recommended to know your eligibility for this exam and then study and dream for it.
Your nationality should be Indian when you apply for UPSC exam but there are certain conditions for those who are residing in India Like (Tibetan refugee, Bhutan people ,nepali people who came to India for the permanent residence etc,) Read More here-Click
UPSC Exam Age Limit-
There are certain condition for all the UPSC aspirants related to their age limit, currently the minimum age limit for UPSC exam is 21 years for all the category aspirants and the maximum age limit has some variation based on the category of the candidates. Read more here about UPSC Age Limit-
UPSC Exam Educational Qualification-
The Minimum Educational qualification for UPSC CSE exam is graduation degree from any recognised university or equivalent degree. If you have completed your graduation from Open university, private university , you also can apply for UPSC CSE exam. Read more about Educational Qualification here-
3-UPSC Exam Pattern & Syllabus-
This is the first and most important step in UPSC exam preparation to know the complete UPSC Prelims and mains syllabus. If you want clear UPSC exam in your first step , you must pay enough attention to UPSC syllabus and then start its preparation.
UPSC exam syllabus/IAS exam syllabus is also defined by UPSC in its official notification which is issued along with UPSC exam notification. UPSC prelims and Mains syllabus is explained in the below-
UPSC Prelims Exam Syllabus-
UPSC prelims paper 1 cover all the general studies subject like history, geography, economics, polity, art & culture, environment etc. You have to prepare all these subject from the basic , You can read NCERT of class 6th to 12th to prepare your basic understanding of all these subject .UPSC prelims paper syllabus is explained in topics wise in this article, click here to read more-
UPSC mains consists of 9 papers where two language papers and qualifying in nature rest 7 papers marks are counted for final merit. Essay is the first paper where syllabus is not mentioned , you have to prepare all the possible topics of importance. Rest are the four GS paper and two optional subject paper. The syllabus of these papers is explained here in details.
UPSC mains has two paper of optional subjects, you are asked to choose one subject as an optional for the mains exam. Optional subject consists of 500 marks in the mains exam so the importance of these paper is huge in upsc mains exam.
so it is highly recommended to choose only those subject as optional where you are very familiar can score high in the exam. here is the guide for the selection of optional for the mains exam which can help you in selection. read here how to select optional subject for upsc exam.
There are some very popular subject in UPSC mains optional which syllabus is mentioned below. If you are interested in any of them read below.
Interview is the last stage of UPSC exam pattern where UPSC board member test your personality and suitability for the various posts under government of india. The syllabus of upsc interview is not mentioned but there are some common field where questions are asked every year.
Your Educational Background- It is 99% sure that some questions will be asked from your educational background so prepare well this area to answer any unexpected question by UPSC board.
Your family background– This is another important area where some questions are asked in upsc interview so your need to prepare this are well before the interview.
About your Home town– India is very large nation so every place has something special , your city may be famous for something and you must be aware of that. Like if you belong Agra , you must be well aware of the TAJ and its related questions.
If you prepare current affairs daily, keep eye on burning issue of the society, national and international , you can answer most of the questions asked in the UPSC interview. Good Luck.
UPSC Syllabus For Political Science & International Relation-
Political science is one of the loved subject for UPSC Mains optional subject by many arts & science graduates so today I will explain every keywords of the UPSC Syllabus For Political Science & international Relation in this article. The choice of selection political science subject as an optional can be based on the interest of the aspirants, educational background, and others .
But Political science has very good track record in scoring high marks in UPSC mains optional exam so large number of aspirants choose it.
If you study well , prepare notes and revise it several times before exam, you can score very good marks in UPSC mains exam which will definitely boost your overall ranking.
The Syllabus of political science is not so large and you can easily manage this subject with regular study and good UPSC books.
It is highly recommended that you should read only those books which are specially made for UPSC exam and based on UPSC Syllabus. The book must cover entire UPSC syllabus then only it is beneficial otherwise you will end-up wasting time in those topics which are out of syllabus.
Time management is the key to success in UPSC examination and we should understand it specially for optional subjects. Most people start reading optional after they clear prelims exam and not able to cover entire optional syllabus in 3-4 months and lose marks.
This is wrong approach towards UPSC Optional Subject Preparation, You should give enough time to UPSC optional Subject because it will cost you 500 marks in mains exam which is almost 50% of the previous IAS topper total marks. So you can not afford low marks in optional Subject.
The best time to start UPSC optional Subject Preparation is well before Prelims exam or with Prelims Exam preparation.
You should start reading optional Subject along with prelims books then only you will be able to cover entire UPSC Optional syllabus in time.
Let’s have a look on the keywords of UPSC Syllabus For Optional Subject-Political Science & International Relation.
UPSC Syllabus For Political Science Paper-01
Political Theory and Indian Politics
1.Political theory meaning and approaches
2.Theories of the state: Liberal, Neoliberal, Marxist, Pluralist, Post-colonial and feminist.
3.Democracy: Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy – representative, participatory and deliberative.
4.Western Political Thought :Plato ,Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John,S. Mill, Marx, Grassi, Hannah Arendt,Concept of power, hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.
5.Political Ideologies: Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism, Liberalism, Socialism,.Indian Political Thought-Dharmashastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist traditions ; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Ssri Aurobindo, M.K. Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, M.N. Roy .
6.Equality: Social, political and economic;relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.
7.Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; concept of Human Rights.
1.Indian Nationalism: Political Strategies of India’s Freedom struggle : constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience ; militant and revolutionary movements, Peasant and workers,movements.Perspectives on Indian National Movement: Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical humanist and Dalit.
2.Grassroots Democracy: Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.
3.Statutory Institutions/Commissions: Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women.
4.Federalism: Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrations tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.
5.Planning and Economic Development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalization and economic reforms,Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.
6.Making of the Indian Constitution: Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.
7.Salient Features of the Indian Constitution: The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.
8.Principal Organs of the Union Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.Principal Organs of the State Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.
9.Party System: National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio- economic profile of Legislators.
10.Social Movements: Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements
UPSC Syllabus For Political Science Paper-02
Comparative Politics and International Relations
1. Comparative Politics: Nature and major approaches; political economy and political sociology perspectives; limitations of the comparative method.
3. Politics of Representation and Participation: Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.
1. Globalisation: Responses from developed and developing societies.
2.State in comparative perspective: Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and, advanced industrial and developing societies.
3. United Nations: Envisaged role and actual record; specialized UN agencies-aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.
4. Regionalisation of World Politics: EU, ASEAN, APEC, SAARC, NAFTA.
5. Contemporary Global Concerns: Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice, terrorism, nuclear proliferation, Approaches to the Study of International Relations: Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.
6. Key concepts in International Relations: National interest, Security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transnational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.
7. Changing International Political Order,Rise of superpowers; strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and Cold War; nuclear threat,Non-aligned movement : Aims and achievements,Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.
8. Evolution of the International Economic System: From Bretton Woods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.
India and the World:
1. Indian Foreign Policy: Determinants of foreign policy; institutions of policy-making; continuity and change.
2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement: Different phases; current role
3. India and South Asia,Regional Cooperation: SAARC – past performance and future prospects,South Asia as a Free Trade Area,India’s “Look East” policy,Impediments to regional cooperation: river water disputes; illegal cross-border migration; ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; border disputes.
4. Recent developments in Indian Foreign policy: India’s position on the recent crisis in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Israel; vision of a new world order.
5. India and the Global South: Relations with Africa and Latin America; leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.
6. India and the Global Centres of Power: USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.
7. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peacekeeping; demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.
8. India and the Nuclear Question: Changing perceptions and policy.
These are the Keyword for the UPSC Syllabus Political Science Optional Subject based on the latest notification of UPSC exam. You can print these points and try to memorise it to understand every topics under Optional Syllabus.
Here are the links for some other UPSC optional Subject Syllabus you may like to read them-